Nano fluids are the colloidal suspension of Nanoparticles and Base fluid. The diffusion of Nano particles in the conventional base fluid shows the higher thermo-physical properties of the Nano fluids. This makes the conductivity increases with the increase in the temperature of the Nano fluid thereby the heat transfer rate increases. This project shows the experimental report on the laminar convective heat transfer characteristics of Zirconium oxide/Water Nano fluid through shell and tube heat exchanger with respect to the effect of volume fraction. The Nano fluids of different volume fraction are taken into analyse like 0.1% to 0.5%. The thermo-physical properties of Nano fluids like thermal conductivity, Viscosity and Specific heat are measured using KD2-pro Thermal analyser, viscometer and Differential scanning calorimeter respectively. The Viscosity and Specific heat are measured at the temperature range of about 20 ˚c, 40 ˚c, and 60 ˚c. The experimental results shows the enhancement of the thermal conductivity due to the nanoparticles presence in the base fluid, and also shown an effect on the thermal conductivity and Viscosity of the Nano fluid by volume concentration of the Nano particles in the base fluid.
INTRODUCTION TO NANO FLUIDS:
Nano fluids, first coined by S.U.S. Choi of Argonne National Lab in 1995.Nano fluids are dilute liquid suspended nano particles which have smaller dimension of (1-100 nm). These are the new kind of heat transfer medium, containing nanoparticles (1–100 nm) which are uniformly and stably distributed in a base fluid. These distributed nanoparticles, generally a metal or metal oxide which shows the greater enhancement in thermal conductivity of the nano fluid, increases conduction and convection coefficients, allowing for more heat transfer.The Importance of Nano-sized particles and their benefits compared to micro particles has beeninvestigated and it could be stated that nanoparticles possess :
1. Longer suspension time (More stable)
2. Much higher surface area.
3. Larger surface area/volume ratio (1000 times larger)
4. Higher thermal conductivity.
5. Lower erosion and clogging.
6. Lower demand for pumping power.
7. Reduction in inventory of heat transfer fluid.
8. Significant energy saving.
Higher performance of heat transfer, in both conduction and convection heat transfer modes, wasreported by several researchers, afterward. Increment in thermal conductivity of fluid was one of the firstfeatures investigated by Eastman et al.
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