Essay question about mitochindria, rough endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes

Animal cells, including those of humans, are eukaryotic cells. Explain the link between mitochondria in muscle cells and rough endoplasmic reticulum in enzyme secreting cells from salivary glands. The cells in tadpole tails are specialised and contain many more lysosomes compared to its other cells. Describe he production of lysosomes and suggest how this adaptation allows a tadople's tail to be absorbed as it changes into a frog. Animals tend to be multicellular organisms. Give the levels of organisation responsible for creating organisms.

Well muscle cells have many mitochondria to produce the ATP required to allow the muscles to contract. Not all cells will have the same requirements for ATP.  It all depends on their function.  Rough endoplasmic reticulum is involved in protein synthesis and as enzymes are proteins and salivary glands produce a lot of enzymes such as salivary amylase then these cells will have a lot of rough ER.  Lysosomes, or the membranes and hydrolytic (splits substances by addition of water) enzymes inside them are made at the rough ER and transferred to the golgi apparatus.  Some lysosomes may be formed by budding directly from the golgi. The hydrolytic enzymes in the lysosomes of the tadpoles tail destroy the cells of the tail as it transforms into a frog.  Therefore when the tadpole begins to transform into a frog the number of lysosomes increases.
Alice S.
20 October 2016
Hi! Muscle cells and enzyme secreting cells have very different purposes, so their cell composition will be different. Muscle cells vital in movement, and this requires a lot of energy in the form of ATP. As ATP is produced by the mitochondria, muscle cells will need a large number of mitochondria so that a lot of ATP can be produced. Salivary glands on the other hand, have a vital function in producing digestive enzymes. Enzymes are protein structures, of which the rough endoplasmic reticulum are involved in producing. As a large amount of enzymes will be produced, the cell will have many rough endoplasmic reticulum.Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes. The enzyme proteins would be produced by the rough endoplasmic reticulum. These will then be modified and packaged in the Golgi apparatus, where a vesicle would pinch off containing the hydrolytic enzymes. This special vesicle is the lysosome. Tadpoles have a high amount of lysosomes so that the the tail can be broken down when it turns into a frog.The level of organisation in organisms, from smallest unit to largest: Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, BodyHope that helps!
Sandra S.
28 November 2016
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