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Aerobic Respiration in Plants


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1.0"><span data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.0.0">Just like all animals including humans, plants need to respire otherwise they will die. It is important to note however that respiration is not breathing. Plants do not breath as we do.

1.0">Breathing is the physical process of inhaling and exhaling air into and out of your lungs whereas respiration is a chemical reaction were oxygen is used to breakdown glucose and create energy that plants use to grow. As a by-product of this reaction, carbon dioxide and water are produced.  <p data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.1">1.1.0">Here is the equation for aerobic respiration: </span>glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water    </section>  <div data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.2.0.0">It is also important to note that respiration and photosynthesis are not the same things either. They are 2 separate processes, both used by plants to survive. Photosynthesis is used by plants to produce energy, whereas the respiration process breaks down the energy for use.

1.2.0.0"></div>  <div data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.2.0.0">Here is the equation for photosynthesis: carbon dioxide + water → glucose + oxygen
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1.5"><span data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.5.0">As you can see the reactants and products of aerobic respiration and photosynthesis in plants are opposites:

    1.6">   	<li data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.6.0"><span data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.6.0.0">aerobic respiration uses oxygen and produces carbon dioxide</span></li>   	<li data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.6.1"><span data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.6.1.0">photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and produces oxygen</span></li>  </ul>  The 2 processes work together to keep the plants alive.  <p data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.7">1.7.0">Although photosynthesis is talked about more, plants actually respire all the time, whether it is dark or light. They only photosynthesise when it's light! Here is a summary from the <a href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/guides/zpwmxnb/revision/3">bbc bitesize</a> on when plants are doing what and the results.</span>    <table class="revision-chapter-table" aria-label="A three column table explaining when respiration and photosynthesis takes place." data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.8">

    1.8.1">

    1.8.1.0">  <th data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.8.1.0.0"><span data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.8.1.0.0.0">Conditions</span></th>  <th data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.8.1.0.1"><span data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.8.1.0.1.0">Photosynthesis v respiration</span></th>  <th data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.8.1.0.2"><span data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.8.1.0.2.0">Overall result</span></th>  </tr>  </thead>  <tbody data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.8.2">  <tr data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.8.2.0">

    1.8.2.0.0">1.8.2.0.0.0">Dark 1.8.2.0.1">1.8.2.0.1.0">Respiration but no photosynthesis 1.8.2.0.2">1.8.2.0.2.0">Oxygen taken in, carbon dioxide given out 1.8.2.1">  <td class="has-label" data-label="Conditions" data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.8.2.1.0"><span data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.8.2.1.0.0">Dim light</span></td>  <td class="has-label" data-label="Photosynthesis v respiration" data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.8.2.1.1"><span data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.8.2.1.1.0">Photosynthesis rate equals respiration rate</span></td>  <td class="has-label" data-label="Overall result" data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.8.2.1.2"><span data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.8.2.1.2.0">Neither gas is taken in or given out</span></td>  </tr>  <tr data-reactid=".h5rgv8446g.0.0.0.1:0.2.0.0.1.8.2.2">

    1.8.2.2.0">1.8.2.2.0.0">Bright light 1.8.2.2.1">1.8.2.2.1.0">Photosynthesis rate greater than respiration rate 1.8.2.2.2">1.8.2.2.2.0">Carbon dioxide taken in, oxygen given out

    1.$9">Please help us out with your own comments and explanations on how plants release the energy!

Answers
Aerobic respiration involves oxygen. The consumption of oxygen and glucose leads to the production of carbon dioxide, water and energy. This is respiration. At the same time (during the day) plants also perform photosynthesis, which is basically the same process in reverse: carbon dioxide, water and energy (via sunlight) produce glucose and oxygen. This only happens during the day, and at night the plant only undergoes respiration, not photosynthesis.
anniedunn
28 September 2017
Aerobic respiration happens when there is plenty of oxygen (normal level in air is 21%). Anaerobic respiration happens where there is less oxygen than this.Respiration is the process of producing energy from glucose in the mitochondria inside cells.oxygen + glucose ---------->  carbon dioxide + water + (energy)All living things have to do this. The difference between plants and animals is that plants can make the glucose themselves through photosynthesis, and animals have to eat food for a source of glucose.Releasing the energy from glucose is a multi-step process that involves several different enzymes and a change in the structure of glucose. The equation above is the simplified version that is taught in school. At A-Level and above you would learn the more complicated version.In simplified terms the energy is released when the bonds are broken in the molecules.
chumphreys
29 September 2017
Aerobic Respiration in plants is exactly the same in plants as it is in humans. This still uses the same organelle (the mitochondria) and releases the same products at the end- CO2 and water. However, as we need to consume glucose to form a reactant for respiration, plants can make it themselves through photosynthesis, therefore these reactants and products become interdependant on each other in a kind of cycle. Respiration in plants still goes through the same stages as in humans as in Glycolysis,Link Reaction, Krebs and Oxidative Phosphorylation. Hope this helps.  
Logan T.
01 October 2017
Aerobic RespirationAerobic RespirationSeptember 18, 20170 CommentsWhat Is Respiration?Respiration is one of the important chemical processes in all the living organisms. It could happen either in the presence of oxygen (aerobic) or the absence of Oxygen (anaerobic-mainly in single-celled or multicellular organisms). For instance, human beings undergo the process of respiration by inhaling oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide. Many living organisms whether plants or animals undergo this process to use their food energy.The general diagram of this process is as shown below-://s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/subscriber.images/biology/2016/07/29105433/Aerobic-Respiration.jpg Respiration is of two types, namely aerobic respiration, and anaerobic respiration.Aerobic RespirationAerobic respiration is a process in which the food glucose is converted into energy in the presence of oxygen. The general equation of aerobic respiration as a whole is as given below-Glucose + oxygen ==Carbon-dioxide+ Water+ EnergyIn the above equation, energy is released by the breaking up of glucose by oxygen and as a result of this, the water and the carbon-dioxide are being produced as one of the resultant of the reaction. When one molecule of glucose is broken,  2900 kJ of energy is released. This is used in-turn to create a new type of energy molecule called as the ATP of the Adenosine Triphosphate. The body uses this ATP generated as the energy for various purposes.Aerobic respiration process also takes place in animals, plants and other living organisms. Firstly the oxygen enters the cells of plants with the help of stomata. Plants produce their food with the aid of photosynthesis process and thus release energy from it through the respiration process. The below equation describes the process of photosynthesis or the aerobic respiration in plants.Carbon-dioxide + water== Glucose + OxygenAnaerobic RespirationAnaerobic, the word itself would say about what the process is. Anaerobic respiration is a process which takes place due to the lack of oxygen. In this process, the energy is obtained by the breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen. One of the well-known examples of anaerobic respiration is fermentation in yeast
sonugulfam
07 October 2017
 Aerobic respiration is the chemical reaction used to release energy from glucose. It is called aerobic because oxygen from the air is also needed.glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water (+ energy)Plant cells respire, just as animal cells do. If they stop respiring, they will die. Remember that respiration is not the same as breathing, so take care - plants do not breathe.Also, respirstion and photosynthesis are two different things i.e. Respiration uses oxygen and produces carbon dioxide. Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and produces oxygen.Plants respire all the time, whether it is dark or light. They photosynthesise only when they are in the light.
sahil731
19 November 2017
All cells release energy. All cells must have energy to function. Glucose and other sugars are cell food—they are the power source for cell activities in almost all living things. When glucose is stored as glycogen or taken in as starch, it must be broken down into individual molecules before cells are able to use it. Chemical energy is stored in the bonds of sugars. When the bonds of a sugar molecule are broken, a burst of energy is released that the cell can use. Cells can release energy in two basic processes: cellular respiration and fermentation. Cellular respiration requires oxygen, but fermentation does not. In addition, cellular respiration releases much more usable energy than does fermentation.Cellular Respiration In cells use oxygen to release energy stored in sugars such as glucose. In fact, most of the energy used by the cells in your body is provided by cellular respiration. Just as photosynthesis occurs in organelles called chloroplasts, cellular respiration takes place in organelles called mitochondria. Remember that mitochondria are in both plant cells and animal cells, so both kinds of cells release energy through cellular respiration. Like photosynthesis, cellular respiration is a process that changes starting materials into new products. The starting materials of cellular respiration are sugars—such as glucose—and oxygen. The process begins when glucose in the cytoplasm is broken down into smaller molecules. This releases a small amount of energy. These molecules then move into the mitochondria. At the same time, oxygen enters the cell and travels into the mitochondria. As the smaller molecules are broken down even further, hydrogen is released along with a large amount of energy. The hydrogen combines with oxygen to make water. The products are energy, carbon dioxide, and water. Some of the energy produced during cellular respiration is transferred to other molecules, which then carry the energy where it is needed for the activities of the cell. The rest of the energy is released as heat. Carbon dioxide formed during cellular respiration is released by the cell. 
bhardwajronak
24 March 2018
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How do plants use aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

Oxygen is one of the basic needs for life but ever wondered what is the role of oxygen in our body? Why it is so important to intake oxygen? That is why we dedicated this specific resource to teach you how plants utilize oxygen and what happens if they don't have oxygen?

What is Aerobic Respiration?

Let's start with the easiest ones. The term "Aerobic Respiration" refers to a set of reactions that takes place because of oxygen. Thanks to oxygen, the chemical energy will be converted to ATP (Adenosine triphosphate). The purpose of ATP is to carry the energy in a cell. In some books, it is also called an energy currency for a cell. Without ATP, a cell will die and that is why plants do aerobic respiration to make sure that their cells are full of energy for other purposes. All living things carry out aerobic respiration in order to live. We will talk about it in detail in the upcoming section how it converts chemical energy into ATP.

What is Anaerobic Respiration?

It is the opposite of aerobic respiration. The word, "Anaerobic" means without oxygen. In simple words, a series of metabolic reactions occur without the utilization of oxygen. Does that mean the cell will not generate any kind of energy? No, it will still provide energy but in a very less quantity. Plants do undergo anaerobic respiration too. Honestly, there are not so many reactions in anaerobic respiration but they do provide very quick energy to the cell in large amounts. Plants and microorganisms are the best examples of anaerobic respiration. Many microorganisms contain sulfate {{ SO }_{ 4 }}^{ -2 } in the transport chain (at their end) however, some of them uses nitrate { { NO }_{ 3 } }^{ - }.

Process of Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

The process of both respiration starts when chloroplast makes glucose using solar energy. This process is known as photosynthesis. The glucose molecule contains 6 carbons, 12 hydrogens, and 6 oxygen atoms. The chemical formula of glucose is { C }_{ 6 } { H }_{ 12 } { O }_{ 6 }. Glucose is food for plants. This molecule undergoes a series of reactions that will convert glucose into 38 ATPs. Although, approximately, 40 ATPs are produced the respiration process consumes 2 ATP of its own and that is why 38 ATPs are formed. Glucose undergoes a reaction called "Glycolysis" that converts glucose molecules into pyruvic acid. One molecule of glucose produces 2 molecules of pyruvic acid. This is the first phase of both, aerobic and anaerobic respiration. This reaction also releases two more things, 2 ATP as well as 2 NAD{ H }_{ 2 }. Let's keep track of ATPs and NAD{ H }_{ 2 } because they are very important, glycolysis produces pyruvic acid with 2 ATPs and 2 NAD{ H }_{ 2 }. From this phase, aerobic respiration separates from anaerobic respiration. Do note that the process of glycolysis consumes 2 ATP.

For Aerobic Respiration

For Aerobic respiration, there are two conditions, and both need to be fulfilled. If one of them doesn't fulfill then there will be no aerobic respiration. The first condition is pretty simple, there should be oxygen for aerobic respiration. The second condition is the requirement of mitochondria. A detail picture of mitochondria The above picture shows mitochondria. Once the pyruvic acid enters perimitochondrial space (intermembrane space), it converts to acetyl coenzyme A (Acetyl Co-A). This reaction only occurs in this region because the enzyme that converts pyruvic acid to Acetyl Co-A is available in this space only. This reaction will release 2 more 2NAD{ H }_{ 2 }. Till now, we have 2 ATPs and 4 NAD{ H }_{ 2 }. Now Acetyl Co-A will be transferred to the matrix of mitochondria where the most important reaction occurs which is known as the Krebs cycle. The Krebs cycle will release 6 NAD{ H }_{ 2 }, 2 { FADH }_{ 2 } and 2 GTP (Guanosine-5'-triphosphate). GTP plays a very important role in the synthesis of RNA during the transcription process. It is used as an energy source that binds the amino-bound tRNA to the A site of the ribosome. Since it is also an energy source, we can say that GTP is equal to ATP for this case, which means Krebs cycle produced6 NAD{ H }_{ 2 }, 2 { FADH }_{ 2 } and 2 ATP. This is the second phase of aerobic respiration. After the Kreb cycle, we are left with 4 ATPs and 10 NAD{ H }_{ 2 }, and 2 { FADH }_{ 2 }, the question is this process releases 38 ATPs, where are the remaining 34 ATPs? The answer is with the help of the cristae. The next step is to convert NAD{ H }_{ 2 } and { FADH }_{ 2 } to ATPs and that is where the role of cristae starts. The process of converting NAD{ H }_{ 2 } and { FADH }_{ 2 } to ATPs is called Electron Transport System (ETS). Through this process, NAD{ H }_{ 2 } produces 3 ATPs, and { FADH }_{ 2 } produces 2 ATPs. The whole process released 10 NAD{ H }_{ 2 } and 2 { FADH }_{ 2 }, let's calculate how much they are equivalent to ATPs. 10 NAD{ H }_{ 2 } means 30 ATPs and 2 { FADH }_{ 2 } means 4 ATPs, all-together we have 34 ATPs. Let's calculate the total amount of ATPs produced in aerobic respiration. 2 ATPs were formed during the glycolysis, 2 ATPs were formed because of the Kreb cycle, and 34 ATPs were formed by converting NAD{ H }_{ 2 } and { FADH }_{ 2 } to ATPs in the cristae. If we sum up all the ATPs, we will get 38 ATPs and that is how aerobic respiration occurs. A process flow chart of cellular respiration (Krebs Cycle)

For Anaerobic Respiration

After the glycolysis reaction, we got pyruvic acid. Since there is an absence of either mitochondria or oxygen or even both, the products will be different and different amounts of ATPs will be produced. The pyruvic acid will turn into ethanol and carbon dioxide by utilizing the 2 NAD{ H }_{ 2 }. In the case of an animal cell, it will produce lactic acid. The glycolysis decomposes into pyruvic acid and doesn't require oxygen. It is already a part of anaerobic, therefore, the first phase will occur without any trouble. Let's count the ATPs produced in this respiration. Glycolysis produces 2 ATPs, and conversion of pyruvic acid to ethanol and carbon dioxide doesn't release any ATP, therefore, we are left we only 2 ATPs. In short, anaerobic respiration produces only 2 ATPs. If both, mitochondria and oxygen are present, then aerobic respiration will be preferred, however, in the absence of any of either of them will prefer anaerobic respiration. Process flow diagram of anaerobic respiration of a plant

What is the word equation for aerobic/anaerobic respiration?

Both processes have the same reactants but different products because of different conditions. In aerobic respiration, glucose will be broken into carbon dioxide and water. Chemical equation of the cellular respiration This is the overall equation of cellular respiration. This means that after reaction in cytoplast, mitochondria, and ETS, these are the products. After balancing the equation, it shows that six moles of glucose react with six moles of oxygen to release six moles of carbon dioxide and six moles of water with thirty-eight ATP. Below is the equation of anaerobic respiration. Chemical equation of the anaerobic respiration This might look simple but it isn't. Aerobic respiration goes through a series of metabolic reactions that should be talked about in detail. Each step in the aerobic reaction contains a lot of reactions that will be too much for this resource, let's just keep it simple for this one.

Difference Between Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

Reaction with oxygen and without oxygen isn't the only difference in both respiration processes, they are a few more differences. Below is the table that shows the differences.

Comparison Basis Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration
Products of the overall reaction Consumes six moles of glucose and oxygen to release six moles of carbon dioxide and water Consumes one mole of glucose and NADH to produce two moles of ethanol and two moles of carbon dioxide
Oxygen requirement This process requires oxygen This process doesn't require oxygen
Energy produced 38 ATP worth energy is produced 2 ATP worth energy is produced
Exchanging of gas Oxygen is absorbed and carbon dioxide is released No gas is absorbed, however, some gases are released depending on the microorganism
Place of reaction All metabolic reactions occur in the cytoplasm and mitochondria All reactions happen in the cytoplasm of the cell
Oxidation Complete oxidation process occurs converting carbohydrates into energy Because of the absence of oxygen, an incomplete oxidation process occurs.
Reaction time Since a lot of reaction occurs and a large amount of energy is been produced, it requires a lot of time Quick reactions
Occurs This process is found in all high living organisms It is mostly found in primitive prokaryotes. However, mammals also undergo this process during extreme movements

Conclusion

The above process description is just a summary of aerobic and aerobic respiration. Aerobic and anaerobic respiration are very complex respiration processes. As a matter of fact, there is a huge process flow diagram of both of them with their intermediates that requires a lot of time to understand. Aerobic respiration is very common and found in many living things, however, anaerobic respiration is done on an industrial level for manufacturing ethanol and lactic acid. This domain is called biochemical engineering and let's talk about it next time. Aerobic and anaerobic respiration processes