Tutoring Academia Languages Sport Music Arts and Hobbies
Share

How Do You Tell the Time in Japanese?

By Jon, published on 20/02/2018 Blog > Languages > Japanese > Talking About the Date and Time in Japanese
Contents
  • The History of the Japanese Calendar
  • Telling the Time in Japanese
  • Days of the Week in Japanese
  • The 12 Months of the Year in Japanese
  • One Last Thing About Years
  • A Few Examples of Dates in Japanese

According to the Japan Foundation, there are thousands of students who choose to study Japanese every year. The majority learn Nihongo, the type of Japanese studied by any foreigner who wants to learn the language.

It’s quickly becoming one of the most popular languages to study, too. This is because the archipelago is home to anime, manga, Buddhism, the samurai, and much more, all of which are some of the biggest global Japanese cultural and religious exports.

Have you decided to take the plunge and start experiencing the richness of the Japanese language, too?

There are some facts about Japanese that you should be aware of before you start learning about the Japanese writing systems and learn kanji and kana (hiragana and katakana). You should probably learn some basic Japanese phrases, too, such as telling the time and talking about, times, days, dates, and months.

Before travelling overseas to Kyoto, Yokohama, Tokyo, Mount Fuji, Osaka, Hokkaido, Kyushu, or Kansai, it’d be useful to do a little study session on dates and time vocabulary so that you can buy tickets for a bus or train or just get a table at a restaurant or reserve a hotel.

Fortunately for you, Superprof is here to help you on this journey with an article on how to tell the time in Japanese, how to say days and dates, and how to improve your Japanese vocabulary so that you can talk about the months.

The History of the Japanese Calendar

Let’s start with a bit of history about Japan. Before 1873, Japanese calendars and the Japanese date format followed that of China. Since 1873, Japan has used the Gregorian calendar which is used in most countries, and the calendar format that you’ll probably be most familiar with.

How do you say the date in Japanese? Japan originally used the Chinese calendar before changing to the Gregorian calendar in the 19th century. (Source: Manuel Joseph)

Japanese people use the year-month-day system. Thus, April 11, 2018, would be as follows: 2018411.

The Japanese kanji means year, is month, and is day. The date literally means “year 2018, month 4, day 11”. Simple, isn’t it? Later on in the article we’ll see a few more detailed examples including how to write the years.

However, before you start learning how to say the date in Japanese, it’s highly recommended that you learn to count in Japanese first. While you might see the date or time written using the Arabic numerals like we use, it’s also likely that you’ll see something like 九月 to indicate the 9th month of the year (September) with being the kanji for the number 9.

Telling the Time in Japanese

Japanese culture plays just as big a part as the language when working out how to tell the time.

When you go to Japan and start telling the time in Japanese, the first thing you’ll need to consider is whether it’s the morning and afternoon (after you’ve recovered from the jet lag, that is), just like you would with “am” and “pm” in English.

In Japanese, the following is used:

  • gozen” (午前) for the morning.
  • gogo” (午後) for the afternoon.

In Japan, you can’t use the Japanese words for “What time is it?” since the question in Japanese is actually “What time is it now?” It’s very important in Japanese that you say the Japanese for “now” when asking for the time.

How do you ask for the time in Japan? “What time is it now?” (Source: Aphiwat Chuangchoem)

This is how you’d ask that question:

  • ima nanji desu ka?” (今何時ですか) .

In this sentence, “desu ka” indicates that we’re asking a question. The kanji “何” (nani) can be translated to mean “what” while the “時” refers to the hour or time.

For example, if you wanted to say that it was five in the morning, you’d say “ima wa gozen goji desu” (今は 午前 5).

While the numbers here are written using Arabic numerals, if you really want to learn Japanese, you should learn the kanji for numbers since they can use both systems in Japan. After all, if you ask a person what the time is in Tokyo, they’ll tell you the answer in Japanese rather than showing you the time with the numbers we’re used to. Therefore improving your proficiency for speaking Japanese is essential if you are thinking about living in Japan.

Remember.

  • is the kanji for minutes.
  • (ji) is the kanji for hours.

Just like learning some expressions relating to greetings and how to introduce yourself, learning how to tell the time will be useful right from the get-go, as it will likely feature in any Japanese conversation that you ever have,

Days of the Week in Japanese

Now that we know how to tell the time, let’s learn more about the days of the week. Firstly, just like in many other Asian countries such as Korea and China, Sunday is the first day of the week in Japan.

As we saw earlier, the kanji is used to refer to days. The following table includes the days in Japanese, their translation and meaning, as well as the transcription in kanji.

Day

Kanji

Phonetic

Meaning

Sunday

日曜日

Nichiyôbi

Day of the Sun

Monday

月曜日

Getsuyôbi

Day of the Moon

Tuesday

火曜日

Kayôbi

Day of Fire

Wednesday

水曜日

Suiyôbi

Day of Water

Thursday

木曜日

Mokuyôbi

Day of Wood

Friday

金曜日

Kinyôbi

Day of Gold

Saturday

土曜日

Doyôbi

Day of Earth

Remember that these are the Japanese etymological translations, not the meanings of our days of the week which comes from Latin. For example, Saturday in English means the “Day of Saturn” which is the “Day of Earth” in Japanese. On the other hand, Monday, is the “Day of the Moon” in both English and Japanese.

The 12 Months of the Year in Japanese

If you’re going to be telling the time and saying the dates in Japanese, you’re going to have to learn the months of the year.

What should you learn before you go to Japan? Before you go to Japan, you should learn how to ask what the date and time is. (Source: pixabay.com)

 

English

Rōmaji

Hiragana

Kanji

January

ichigatsu

いちがつ

一月

February

nigatsu

にがつ

二月

March

sangatsu

さんがつ

三月

April

shigatsu

しがつ

四月

May

gogatsu

ごがつ

五月

June

rokugatsu

ろくがつ

六月

July

shichigatsu

しちがつ

七月

August

hachigatsu

はちがつ

八月

September

kugatsu

くがつ

九月

October

jūgatsu

じゅうがつ

十月

November

jūichigatsu

じゅういちがつ

十一月

December

jūnigatsu

じゅうにがつ

十二月

Note that April can also be called “yongatsu”, July “nanagatsu”, and September “kyugatsu”. February can also be written as: 如月.

It’s interesting to note that the months in Japanese also have a translation dating back to the calendar used before 1873. Nevertheless, these are not currently used and are only found in poetic texts. It should be noted that they’re largely literal translations, too. For example, January (known traditionally as 睦月) would be translated as the “month of friendship”.

In Japanese grammar, there are several suffixes used when counting which are somewhat different to the way we count in English. Thus, you can’t use the same suffix when counting people as when counting cylindrical objects or pills. Fortunately, this rule doesn’t apply to counting the months. You can use “getsu” for counting months. Like this:

  • One month = ikkagetsu

  • Two months = nikagetsu

  • Three months = sankagetsu

  • Four months = yonkagetsu

  • Five months = gokagetsu

  • Six months = rokkagetsu

  • Seven months = nanakagetsu

  • Eight months = nikagetsu

  • Nine months = kyuukagetsu

  • Ten months = jukkagetsu

  • Eleven months = juuichikagetsu

  • Twelve months = juunikagetsu

One Last Thing About Years

When we talk about a year, we use the kanji .

As we saw earlier, the Japanese use the Gregorian calendar. However, there’s one thing you should note about how they use it: they use dates according to the current emperor. This means that we’re currently in the 29th year of Heisei 平成 which started on January 7, 1989 when the reign of Akihito ended. Each emperor gets their own era.

Thus, according to the Japanese calender, it’s 平成29年, which means the Heisei 29.

How long does it take to learn Japanese? With such beautiful places to visit, learning Japanese is a great idea. (Source: pixabay.com)

Gengou Free” is a mobile app you can use to convert Japanese dates to Gregorian dates. This can be really useful if you find yourself talking to Japanese natives who express the date in this way.

A Few Examples of Dates in Japanese

  • 12 April 2001: 2001412
  • 17 March 2007: 20073月17日
  • 28 August 2004: 2014828
  • 7:30am: 午前七時半 です which is pronounced “gozen shichi-ji han desu”. If you want to say 7:30pm, you’ll need to change “gozen” 午前 for “gogo” 午後. Unlike in English, you put the “am” or “pm” part before the time, not after it. This means you start the sentence with either “gogo” or “gozen”.

When it comes to dates, you can always replace the Arabic numerals with the Japanese equivalents if you want.

When giving the date, you can add 今日は or “ kyô wa” (today) and ending the sentence with ですwhich functions like the verb “to be”.

For example, saying “Today is July 8th 2017”, you’d say “今日は201778日です”.

Don’t forget that there’s plenty of etiquette to follow in Japan, too.

In short:

  • Studying to say the time, date (day, month, and year) is one of the first things you should learn when you start learning to speak Japanese (or any language for that matter). If you want to live or travel in Japan, these are some of the most important things to learn.

  • The grammar and the pronunciation are overly problematic in Japanese. The Japanese writing system, however, does complicate matters. However, you don’t need to panic! You won’t need to learn lots of kanji, nor have more than a conversational level in order to tell the time or give the date. You can always start with Arabic numerals and learning just 3 or 4 different kanji symbols. Anybody can manage that!

  • Learning languages always starts with little steps such as learning the date, introducing yourself, and starting conversations. You’ll move onto more complicated and interesting matters later on. Don’t forget, you can find a Japanese teacher nearby by searching the Superprof website, and there are always Japanese lessons to be found in towns and cities across the world.

Share

Our readers love this article
Did you find this article helpful?

Not helpful at all? Really?Ok, we will try to improve it for next timeThanks for the feedbackThank you, please leave a comment belowIt was a pleasure to help you! :) (No ratings so far)
Loading...

Leave a comment

avatar